The article examines the prospects of using a comparative analysis in the study of the socio-demographic processes in the Northeastern regions of Brazil (Amazonia) and Siberia. The authors hypothesize that one of the optimal cases for comparison with Siberia is Amazonia. A comparative analysis suggests that the compared cases (a set of objects, phenomena and processes) should have a number of similar and distinctive features, while at the same time having tangible differences. Despite the seeming heterogeneity, Amazonia and Siberia have many similarities. Among the elements of similarity, the frontier position stands out in the first place. Both Siberia and Amazonia were the regions of European colonization. Throughout the 20th century, Siberia continued to be a relatively undeveloped territory, in fact, still being a frontier. Brazil's Amazon plays a similar role. Both regions have a similar economic profile and act as resource regions that are rich in timber, metals and other minerals as well as having similar energy profiles. The article highlights that the development in both regions peaked in the second half of the 20th century, and also discusses similar phenomena in the demographic processes in these regions. The findings have allowed the authors to formulate the main directions for further comparative analysis of the socio-demographic development of the large urban centers in Siberia and Amazonia.
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