Characteristic features of Reformation in Hungary and the Formation of the Unitarian (Anti-Trinitarian) Church in Transylvania in the Second Half of the 16th Century
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Unitarian Church of Transnylvania Unitarianism Christian Antitrinitarianism Reformation in Hungary Ferenc David Janos II Zápolya Hungarian Reformed Church Giorgio Blandrata Religious Freedom Eastern Hungarian Kingdom

How to Cite

1. Shlyakhov M., Starikova N. Characteristic features of Reformation in Hungary and the Formation of the Unitarian (Anti-Trinitarian) Church in Transylvania in the Second Half of the 16th Century // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2024. № 1 (9). C. 126-144.


This article examines the peculiarities of the Reformation process in the Hungarian territories, followed by the formation of a Unitarian (Anti-Trinitarian) church in Transylvania in the 16th century. The study aims to identify the specific features and periodization of this process in the said area. The first feature is the complex ethnic composition of the population, which led to political and religious opposition and the strengthening of state power by certain ethnic groups that adopted Protestant religious doctrines. The second feature is related to the complex military-political situation in Central Europe in the 16th century: the disintegration of the Kingdom of Hungary, the annexation of parts of the disintegrated kingdom by the Ottoman Empire, which led to several major Austro-Turkish wars and constant border skirmishes. This resulted in the emergence of various vassal formations and the use of interfaith conflict as a means to achieve success in military-political confrontations. The third feature, closely related to the previous ones, is the strengthening of magnate clans, which, in the context of weak government and a challenging international situation, became independent political forces significantly influencing the religious processes in the country. These characteristics of Reformation in the Hungarian territories led, in the second half of the 16th century, to a substantial expansion of Protestantism supporters and an increase in the number of Protestant denominations. In the small, frontier, vassal state of the Eastern Hungarian kingdom under the Ottoman Empire, the widest religious freedom in Europe was granted. A few years later, a Unitarian (Anti-Trinitarian) Christian church was established, receiving equal rights with all other religious denominations. It continues to exist in Hungary and Romania. This study will be of interest to the researchers of history of Reformation and religion in general.
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