Semantic diversity of images of the Indian in New England in the XVIII century. Part 2
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Image of the Indian, the Other, Alien, Native Americans, Symbols, New England, Pennsylvania, Hybridity, Mimicry, City of belles lettres, Colony in Schuylkill

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1. Якушенков С. Semantic diversity of images of the Indian in New England in the XVIII century. Part 2 // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2018. № 1. C. 91-120.


Article continues the semantic analysis of images of Native Americans in the public discourse of New England in the 18th century. The emphasis in this article is made on the formation in New England of the culture of American intellectuals who created their secular environment in contrast to the religious culture. The author calls it the City of belles lettres, that was forced to exist within the limits of strict religious restrictions. The only place where the islets of free thoughts remained were taverns or places that were located outside of the city. One such place was the Colony in Schuylkill, representing a community of hunters and fishermen. As enterprises formed around the taverns, it was a society of the hedonistic type. In the trends of the "city of the spectacle" (according Guy Debord), these companies have created a culture of feasts, parades and holidays. The formation of a new culture in New England was held in the framework of "nativisation", i.e. the inclusion into the new culture the elements of traditional cultures of indigenous peoples. Active role in the formation of new hybrid cultures such ethnic components as the Irish, the Scots, the Welsh began to play, within the trends of the political paradigm of opposition to the British administration. So they tried to create a new system of political and cultural relations. Under certain patterns of the ideology of the Quakers, aimed at peaceful coexistence with indigenous peoples, the inclusion into a new culture of name, associated with the Quaker history of Pennsylvania, began to play a special role. As a result, a certain line of symbolic succession ownership of land in the New World was built up, in which a new population of the colonies got land not from the British crown but from the Indian chiefs, whose image begins to play a significant role in the formation of a new secular culture of the society of the spectacle.

Analysis of all these processes is carried out in the framework of the concept of mimicry (after H. Bhabha, Lacan, etc). Also the concept of A. Rama (Ciudad Letrada) of the existence of a special cultural environment in a New World was used, addition to the idea of spectacle by G. Debord.
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