We Will Feed Our and a New World: Several Cases of Food Ways of Frontier Regions. Part 2
pdf (Русский)


foodscapes frontier hybridity Republic of Peru cultural development regionalism globalism

How to Cite

1. Yakushenkov S. We Will Feed Our and a New World: Several Cases of Food Ways of Frontier Regions. Part 2 // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2021. № 3 (6). C. 161-184.


This article is the second part of the study of regional foodways. If the first part is devoted to the analysis of the foodscape of Astrakhan, the second part analyzes the food system of the Republic of Peru. The choice of this object of study is based on the frontier nature of the region, the diversity of economic and cultural types, and hybridity. All these factors allow us to compare the ways of formation of the foodways of these regions.

The Peruvian alimentary landscape began to form in the 16th century, after the conquest of Peru by the Spanish conquistadors. As a result of mutual influences and struggles between elements of autochthonous and alien cultures, a new "hybrid" phenomenon takes shape. The turning point in the development of national cuisine was in the 1930s, when, as a result of gastropolitical strategies, the government managed to create a food system accessible to the workers of large cities. The opening of “people's restaurants” allowed workers to have calorie-dense food. It also contributed to the creation of a national food system.

The search for national identity among the Peruvian elite led to the “discovery” of their national roots. The fact that Peruvian culture was based on natural and ethnic diversity made the country's alimentary system diverse and rich. This process coincided with global trends in the approach to food in the sense of a focus on “simple” and “healthy” peasant foods, as opposed to foods undergone of maximum processing. Ultimately, this was manifested in the creation of a “new Andean cuisine” that embraced Peru's centuries-old traditions and the country's natural diversity. In doing so, Peruvian restaurateurs used both familiar approaches to business and invented new ones that went beyond the culinary arts. As a result of the efforts of many culinary masters and restaurateurs, in competition with internationally renowned culinary brands, a new global culinary brand has been created, recognized around the world.

pdf (Русский)


A Future Sown Thousands of Year Ago. (2013). (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Retrieved 08 20, 2020, from Quinoa 2013 International Year: http://www.fao.org/quinoa-2013/mobile/en/

Appadurai, A. (1981). Gastro-politics in Hindu South Asia. American Ethnologist, 8(3), 494-511.

Ayora-Diaz, S. I. (2012). Foodscapes, Foodfields, and Identities in the Yucatan. New York: Berghahn Books.

Bauer, A. J. (2001). Goods, Power, History: Latin America's Material Culture. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Benavides de Rivero, G. (2003). Alimentación y gastronomía. II Coloquio Internacional de Gastronomía, Patrimonio y Turismo. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Benites, O. V. (2012). Gastronomía e identidad nacional. Trujillo: Edición del autor.

Benson, E. P. (2012). The Worlds of the Moche on the North Coast of Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Cartay, R. (2016). La mesa amazónica peruana. Ingredientes, corpus y símbolos. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Central, Lima, Peru. (2020, n.d. n.d.). Retrieved 10 05, 2020, from The world's 50 Best Restaurants: https://www.theworlds50best.com/the-list/1-10/Central.html

Clausen de Molina, G. H. (2018). La cocina del Perú. Lima: Planeta.

Drinot, P. (2005). Food, Race and Working-Class Identity: Restaurantes Populares and Populism in 1930s Peru. The Americas, 62(2), 245-270.

Drinot, P., & Contreras, C. (2014). The Great Depression in Peru. В P. Drinot , & A. Knight (Ред.), The Great Depression in Latin America (стр. 102-128). Durham, London: Duke University Press.

Engel, F. (1970). Exploration of the Chilca Canyon, Peru. Current Anthropology, 11, 55-58.

Ferguson, P. P. (2004). Accounting for taste: the triumph of French cuisine. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fraser, L. (August 2006 г.). Next Stop Lima. Gourmet, 66(8), 99-116.

Goldstein, P. S. (2000). Communities without Borders: The vertical archipelago and diaspora communities in the southern Andes. In M. A. Canuto, & J. Yaeger (Eds.), The Archaeology of Communities: the New World Perspective (pp. 182-209). New York: Routledge.

Guardia, S. B. (2016). Cocina Peruana: Historia, cultura y sabores. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Kraig, B., & Sen, C. T. (2013). Street Food around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Oxford: ABC-Clio.

Lamana, G. (2008). Domination without Dominance: Inca-Spanish Encounters in Early Colonial Peru. Durham, London: Duke University Press.

Lauer, M. (2018). Comer en los mercados peruanos. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Lazar, A. (2018, Jun 29). How Malena Martínez Is Changing the Future of Peruvian Cuisine. Retrieved 10 5, 2020, from Eater: https://www.eater.com/2018/6/29/17509624/malena-martinez-mater-iniciativa-central-restaurant-peru-virgilio-martinez-interview

León, E. (2013). 14,000 años de alimentación en el Perú. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Llosa, M. V. (22 MAR 2009 г.). El sueño del 'chef'. El Pais. Retrieved 09 09 2020 from https://elpais.com/diario/2009/03/22/opinion/1237676414_850215.html

Mangan, J. E. (2016). Transatlantic Obligations: Creating the Bonds of Family in Conquest-era Peru and Spain. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Mater Iniciativa. (n.d. de 2013). Recuperado el 11 de 09 de 2020, de Mater Iniciativa: https://materiniciativa.com/

Matta, R. (2011). Posibilidades y límites del desarrollo en el patrimonio inmaterial. El caso de. Apuntes, 24(2), 196-207.

Matta, R., & García, M. (2019). The Gastro-Political Turn in Peru. Anthropology of food, 14, 1-10. Recuperado el 20 de 12 de 2019, de http://journals.openedition.org/aof/10061

Mclaughlin, K. (2011, September 10). The Next Big Thing: Peruvian Food. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 01, 2020, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/food-s-next-big-thing-peruvian-11591297138?tesla=y

Miroff, N. (2014, July 23). Gastón Acurio, South America’s super chef. The Washington Post. Retrieved 09 29, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/gaston-acurio-south-americas-super-chef/2014/07/23/2f7f05bd-a50b-4142-a5c3-b3206f216eac_story.html

Murra, J. V. (1975). El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en la economía de las sociedades andinas. En J. V. Murra, Formaciones Económicas y Politicas del Mundo Andino (págs. 59-116). Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

National Fisheries Sector Overview Peru. (5 09 2020 г.). Retrieved 2020, from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: http://www.fao.org/fishery/docs/DOCUMENT/fcp/en/FI_CP_PE.pdf

Ndi, G. S. (2018). Reimagining Blackness in a Hybridized and Racialized Space. In C. Iheka (Ed.), African Migration Narratives: Politics, Race, and Space (pp. 114-140). Rochester: University of Rochester Press.

Olivas Weston, R. (1996). Cultura, Identidad y Cocina en el Peru. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Olivas Weston, R. (1998). La cocina en el virreynato del Peru. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Olivas Weston, R. (1999). La cocina cotidiana y festiva de los limeños en el siglo XIX. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Olivas Weston, R. (2008). Cusco. El imperio de la cocina. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Olivas Weston, R. (2015). La cocina de los Incas. Costumbres gastronómicas y técnicas culinarias. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Orefici, G. (2019). Cultura alimentaria de los antiguos Nasca. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

O'Toole, R. S. (2012). Bound Lives: Africans Indians and the Making of Race in Colonial Peru. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Perú Nebraska. (n.d. de n.d. de 2011). Recuperado el 20 de 09 de 2020, de Marca Perú: Un símbolo que une a todo el país: https://peru.info/es-pe/marca-peru/detalle-campanas/1/peru-nebraska

Peruvian Camu Camu fruit conquers Japan. (2007, 02 12). Retrieved 09 12, 2020, from Traveling and Living in Peru: https://www.livinginperu.com/business-263-agriculture-peruvian-camu-camu-fruit-conquers-japan/

Prescott, W. H. (2013). History of the Conquest of Peru. New York: Dover Publication.

Radiguet, M. (1859). Souvenirs de l'Amérique Espagnole : Chili, Pérou, Brésil. Paris: Michel Levy Freres.

Stanish, C. (2003). Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia. Berkeley; London: University of California Press.

Steward, J. H. (1946). Handbook of South American Indians (V. 2). Washington, U.S. Govt. Print Off.

Tristán, O. M., & Serida-Nishimura, J. (2014). A Chef’s Dream. In L. Liberman, S. Garcilazo, & E. Stal (Eds.), Multinationals in Latin America: Case Studies (pp. 83-98). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Villavicencio, M. (2017). Mujer, poder y alimentación en el Antiguo Perú. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres.

Villavicencio, M. F. (2007). Seminario Historia de la Cocina Peruana. Lima: Universidad de San Martín de Porres.

Yakushenkov, S. N. (1988). Vertical'naya ekologia y semantika prostranstva v predstavlenii aymara. In Ekologia amerikanskih indeytsev y eskimosov (pp. 276-287). Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).

Yakushenkov, S. N., & Palatkin, V. V. (2020). We will feed our and a new world: several cases of food ways of frontier regions. Part I. Journal of Frontier Studies, 5(4), 237-285. doi: 10.46539/jfs.v5i4.241 (In Russian).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.