The Armenian Apostolic Church in the Politics of the Russian Empire: the Search for an Administrative Optimum
pdf (Русский)

Abstract views: 55
PDF Downloads: 142

Keywords

Caucasus
Armenian Apostolic Church
North Caucasus Frontier
Russian Empire
Armenian Catholicoi
Ethno-Confessional Policy
Historical Memory
Viceroys of the Caucasus

How to Cite

1. Urushadze A. The Armenian Apostolic Church in the Politics of the Russian Empire: the Search for an Administrative Optimum // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2021. № 3 (6). C. 63-93.

Abstract

The article analyzes governmental debates on the functions, rights and privileges of the Armenian Catholicoi in the context of inter-institutional controversies. The author attempts to identify and analyze the most influential programmes for solving the “Echmiadzin issue” and their origins presenting at the same time certain aspects of political interaction between the Russian Empire and the Armenian Church as overlapping processes and related events. The history of relationships between Russian state and Armenian Church in XIX–XX centuries shows that different actors of the imperial politics had different ideas about the optimal model of cooperation with Echmiadzin. The divisions took place not only between the various departments (the Ministry of Internal Affairs versus the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), but also within them, where individual officials could hold “anti-departmental” views in each particular case. All this hindered administrative consolidation, slowed down the empire's response to important political challenges and dragged the imperial structures into protracted service-hierarchical confrontations. The “Etchmiadzin Question” and the governmental discussions around it show in part the administrative paralysis of the autocracy and the decompensation of the system of power in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century.

The article employs a rich documentary base of archival materials from the collections of the Russian State Historical Archive. These materials are introduced into the scholarly discourse for the first time ever.

https://doi.org/10.46539/jfs.v6i3.281
pdf (Русский)

References

Acts collected by the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission (1878). Tiflis: Printing House of the Main Administration of the Viceroy of the Caucasus (In Russian).

Acts collected by the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission (1885). Tiflis: Typography of the Office of the Commander-in-Chief of the Civil Part in the Caucasus (In Russian).

Ambartsumov, I. V. (2010). The Armenian Gregorian Church and the Russian State in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries. Vestnik of Tver State University. Series: History, (4), 115–127. (In Russian).

Ambartsumov, I. V. (2012). The Catholicoses of Etchmiadzin and their influence on the social and political life of Armenia (1892–1912). Bulletin of Tver State University. Series: History, (3), 76–87 (In Russian).

Caucasus. (1903). (275) (In Russian).

Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection II. (1837). St. Petersburg: Printing Office II of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery (In Russian).

Gurko, V. I. (2000). Features and Silhouettes of the Past: The Government and Public in the Reign of Nicholas II as Portrayed by a Contemporary. Moscow: New Literary Review (In Russian).

Ismail-Zadeh, D. I. (2005). I. I. Vorontsov-Dashkov. Viceroy of the Caucasus. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf (In Russian).

Kumpan, E. N. (2019). The Armenian Apostolic Church in the Religious Policy of the Russian Empire: The Process of Incorporation and the Discussion of the Powers of the Catholicos. Ethnicity and Society in the Context of Interethnic Relations: Materials of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, 185–198. Stavropol: IP Dorofeev V. Yu. (In Russian).

Lazarian, S. S. (2018). Archbishop Nerses and the Russian authorities in the 1920s and 1930s: Problems of Mutual Understanding. In The Caucasus in geopolitical interests of regional and world powers: Collection of Scientific Articles. The article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist and great friend of the Armenian people Viktor Vladimirovich Chernous. Rostov-on-Don: DSTU-Print (In Russian).

Legislative Acts of the Transitional Time. 1904–1908: Collection of Laws, Manifestos, Decrees to the Governing Senate, Rescripts and Regulations of the Committee of Ministers Regarding the Transformation of the Russian State System.. (2010). Moscow: State Public Historical Library (In Russian).

Mesropian, A. V. (2012). Tsarist Russian ecclesiastical policy in Eastern Armenia in the first half of the 19th century. The value system of modern society, (23), 86–90.

Petrosyan, Yu. (2017). The Ottoman Empire. Power and Destruction. St. Petersburg: Nauka (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-a). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 77 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-b). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 77 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-c). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 79 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-d). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 80 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-e). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 80 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-f). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 87 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-g). F. 821. Inv. 138. C. 90 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-h). F. 932. Inv. 1. C. 296 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-i). F. 1250. Inv. 2. C. 12 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-j). F. 1268. Inv. 1. C. 825 (In Russian).

Russian State Historical Archive (RSHA). (n. d.-k). F. 1268. Inv. 3. C. 22 (In Russian).

Rybakov, A. L. (2012). In the "Region of Caesar": Problems of the Status and Structure of the Georgian Orthodox Church after the Abolition of Autocephaly (First Half of the 19th Century). In Confession, Empire, and Nation: Religion and the Problem of Diversity in Post-Soviet History. Moscow: New Publishing House (In Russian).

The Caucasus and the Russian Empire: Projects, Ideas, Illusions and Reality. Early 19th-early 20th centuries. (2005). St. Petersburg: Zvezda Magazine Publishers (In Russian).

The Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire in 1905–1906. Documents and materials (1990). Leningrad: Nauka (In Russian).

Ueno, M. (2013). “For the Fatherland and the State”: Armenians Negotiate the Tanzimat Reforms. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 45 (1), 93–109. doi: 10.1017/S0020743812001274

Ueno, M. (2016). Religious in Form, Political in Content? Privileges of Ottoman Non-Muslims in the Nineteenth Century. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 59 (3), 408–441. doi: 10.1163/15685209-12341403

Vartanyan, V. G. (1999). The Armenian Gregorian Church in Russian confessional policy (the last third of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century). (PhD in History Thesis). Rostov-on-Don (In Russian).

Vorontsov-Dashkov, I. I. (1907). Adjutant General Count Vorontsov-Dashkov's all-submitting note on administration of the Caucasian Region. St. Petersburg: State Printing House (In Russian).

Werth, P. (2006). Head of the Church, Subject of the Emperor: The Armenian Catholicos at the Crossroads of the Inner and Outer Politics of the Empire, 1828-1914, 1828–1914. Ab Imperio, (3), 99–138. doi: 10.1353/imp.2006.0107 (In Russian).

Werth, P. (2012). Orthodoxy, Non-Orthodoxy, and Other Religions: Essays on the History of Religious Diversity in the Russian Empire. Moscow: New Literary Review (In Russian).

Yeritsov, A. D. (1898). Patriarch of All Armenians Nerses V and Prince Mikhail Semenovich and Princess Elizabeth Xaverevna Vorontsov, in their private correspondence. Tiflis: M. Martirosyants Printing House (In Russian).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.