Regional development governance has traditionally been one of the most important components of China’s national policy. One of rather complex objects is northeastern China, which includes the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the eastern parts of the autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia. This region was formed in the 1950s - 1960s as the first industrially developed region and the largest industrial base in the country. However, over the years of reforms, its position has noticeably deteriorated, and it has turned into a problematic periphery. The systemic policy of the Northeast reviving implemented by the Chinese government since 2003 attaches great importance, among many other measures, to the expansion of its external openness and the development of cross-border cooperation with the neighbors. This work examines the experience and results of cooperation between the provinces of the Chinese Northeast and the regions of the Russian Far East. The results of the analysis show that, despite the not entirely satisfactory results of this cooperation, cross-border interactions remain important for China as a tool for stimulating the development of peripheral territories. Despite all the shortcomings, problems, and limitations of the specific cases of cross-border cooperation aimed at the “revitalization” of its northeastern periphery, China does not intend to limit the use or abandon this instrument. Moreover, the currently adopted Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) demonstrates a clear strengthening of ideas about the strategic value of border areas in China, as well as its perceptions of the prospects for cross-border interactions.
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