Political and Psychological Features of Slavic Countries’ Perception by Russian Citizens
pdf (Русский)


Slavic countries
image of the country
image of power
image of leader
image of territory
image of people
geopolitical image of state

How to Cite

1. Selezneva A., Smulkina N. Political and Psychological Features of Slavic Countries’ Perception by Russian Citizens // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2020. № 4 (5). C. 209-236.


The article presents an analysis of the perception by Russian citizens of Slavic countries as a political and cultural frontier.

The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was the political and psychological approach. The authors have developed a conceptual research model based on the provisions of the theory of political perception. Image of the country is a multi-component mental construct, which includes a set of representations about the authorities, leaders, peoples, territories and geopolitical image of the states. The research methodology included a semi-standardized interview with Russian citizens, as well as a set of projective techniques.

Based on the analysis of empirical data, the authors determine the characteristics of the perception of Slavic countries. In terms of similarity between themselves, the closest are the images of Montenegro and Bulgaria, the least close are the images of the Czech Republic and Poland. The images of Ukraine and Belarus have an average degree of similarity. The closest images to the Russian respondents are the East Slavic countries; the West Slavic countries are most alienated. In the structure of the country's image, the most stable, symbolically filled and monolithic is the image of the people, which depends on the identification factor. The most dynamic and contradictory are the image of power and the geopolitical image of the state, which largely determines the information context. The perception of all Slavic countries is Russiancentric.

The authors draw conclusions about the influence of various factors on the perception of countries. The most significant of them are geopolitical and communicative factors. The influence of the factor of the Slavic historical and cultural community is situational and secondary.

pdf (Русский)


Abdelal, R., Herrera, Y., Johnston, A. I., & McDermont, R. (2006). Identity as a Varia-ble. Perspectives on Politics, 4(4), 695–711. Doi: 10.1017/S1537592706060440

Anholt, S. (2007). Competitive Identity. The New Brand Management for Nations, Cities and Regions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Basalaeva, I.P. (2012). Frontier as a place in the spatial analysis of social dynamics. Bulletin of Kemerovo State University of Culture and Arts, (18), 208-214. (In Russian).

Bodenhausen, G.V., Morales, J.R. (2013). Social cognition and perception. In I. Weiner (Ed.), Handbook of psychology2nd ed., 5, (pp. 225–246). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Bogaturov, A.D. (2017). International relations and foreign policy of Russia: Scientific publication]. Moscow, Aspekt-Press. (In Russian).

Boldin, V.A. (2019). A Comparative Analysis of Pan-Slavism Models among Western and Southern Slavs: Austroslavism and Yugoslavism. Vesnik of Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno. Series 1. History and Archaeology. Philosophy. Po-litical Science, 11(2), 126-133. (In Russian)

Castano, E., Bonacossa, A. & Gries, P. (2016). National Images as Integrated Schemas: Subliminal Primes of Image Attributes Shape Foreign Policy Preferences. Politi-cal Psychology, 37(3), 351-366. Doi: 10.1111/pops.12259

Cleveland, M., Rojas-Méndez, J.I., Laroche, M. & Papadopoulos N. (2016). Identity, culture, dispositions and behavior: A cross-national examination of globalization and culture change. Journal of Business Research, 69(3), 1090-1102. Doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.08.025

Dronov, A.M. (2017). Interdisciplinary practice in studying of borders and borderlands. The Historical Expertise, 3, 128-143. (In Russian)

Emelyanova, N. (2018). “Soft power” as a Concept: a Critical Analysis. Journal of International Analytics, (25), 7-24. (In Russian)

Herrmann, R. (2013). Perception and Image Theory in International Relations. In D.O. Sears, L. Huddy, R. Jervis (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology (pp. 334-363). New York: Oxford University Press.

Khlyshcheva, E.V. (2013). Frontier as a border between “own” and “strangers”. The Caspian Region: Politics, Economics, Culture, (2), 237-242. (In Russian)

Kiselev, I.Yu. & Smirnova, A.G. (2004). The image of the state as a factor in foreign policy decisions. Polis. Political Studies, (4), 116-125 (In Russian).

Krasnoperov, A.Yu. (2016). Slavism in Social Networks (A Case Study of “Vkon-takte”). Rusin, (46), 264-275 (In Russian). Doi: 10.17223/18572685/46/17

Malinova, O.Yu. (2010). Symbolic Politics and the Construction of Macro-political Identity in Post-Soviet Russia. Polis. Political Studies, (2), 90-105 (In Russian).

Mavrodieva, I. (2014). The Concept of the Bulgarian “European Identity” Across the Bulgarian Language and Political Rhetoric in Bulgaria. US-China Foreign Lan-guage, 12(1), 1-16. Doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2014.01.001.

Maxwell, A. (2018). Effacing Panslavism: Linguistic Classification and Historiographic Misrepresentation. Nationalities Papers, 46(4), 633-653. Doi: 10.1080/00905992.2017.1374360

Pakhaluk, K.A. (2018). Russia and Bulgaria: from «Memorial Wars» to the Search for Common Past. MGIMO Review of International Relations, (4), 178-203. DOI: 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-4-61-178-203. (In Russian)

Puzanova, Zh.V., Filippov, V.M. & Larina, T.I. (2017). Belarusians, Ukrainians and Russians — Mutual Perception in Intercultural Environment (Basing on Results of Empirical Research). Bulletin of Slavic Cultures, (43), 24-37. (In Russian)

Romanova, A.P. & Yakushenkov, S.N. (2014). The role of significats in the formation of cultural memory in the conditions of cross-cultural dialogue on the frontier. The Caspian Region: Politics, Economics, Culture, (2), 272-280.

Selezneva, A.V. & Smulkina, N.V. (2018). Images of the Slavic Countries in the Con-sciousness of Russian Citizens (a case study of Ukraine and Belarus). Rusin, (54), 352-371 (In Russian). Doi: 10.17223/18572685/54/21

Semenenko, I.S., Lapkin, V.V. & Pantin, V.I. (2010). Identity in the Coordinate System of World Development. Polis. Political Studies, (3), 40-59. (In Russian)

Semenova, E.S. (2006). Psychological mechanisms of perception of the images of “one's own” and “alien” political leaders (on the example of the images of V.V. Putin and G. Schroeder). Moscow University Bulletin. Series 12. Political science, (6), 86-94. (In Russian)

Sergeev, V.M. (2012). The Historical Origins of Russian Political Culture. Polis. Politi-cal Studies, (4), 8-22. (In Russian)

Shcherbinin, A.I. & Shcherbinina, N.G. (2015). Slavic world as a political construct. Rusin, (4), 37-52. DOI: 10.17223/18572685/42/4. (In Russian)

Shestopal, E.B. & Smulkina, N.V. (2018). Factors of Perception of Post-Soviet Coun-tries in Modern Society. Polis. Political Studies, 1, 26–44 Doi: 10.17976/jpps/2018.01.03. (In Russian)

Shestopal, E.B. (2012). Psychology of Political Perception in Contemporary Russia. Moscow: ROSSPEN Publ. (In Russian)

Shestopal, E.B. (2019). Political and psychological paradigm and behaviourism. In O.V. Gaman-Golutvina, A.I. Nikitin (Ed.) Contemporary Political Science: Method-ology: Scientific Edition (pp. 366-388). Moscow, Aspekt-Press. (In Russian)

Shestopal, E.B., Smulkina, N.V., Sarkisyan, S.S., Verkhovtsev, V.S., Petlevanaya, A.A., Dzhamalutdinov, Sh.Z., Aibazova, M.M. & Khametov, E.Sh. (2017). Our Neighbors: A View from Russia. Perception by Russian citizens of the former republics of the USSR]. Moscow University Bulletin. Series 12. Political science, (4), 92–127. (In Russian).

Suzdal'tsev, A. (2020). The Crisis of the Union State of Belarus and Russia. World Economy and International Relations, 64(3), pp. 56-67. Doi: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-3-56-67. (In Russian)

Tsygankov, P.A. (2007). Theory of International Relations. Moscow: Gardariki. (In Russian)

Vedernikov, M. (2019). The Czech-Russian Relations: the Models of the Bilateral Links. Contemporary Europe, 7, 17-26. Doi: 10.15211/soveurope720191726. (In Russian)

Welch, S. (2013). The Theory of Political Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199553334.001.0001

Yakushenkov, S.N. (2015). Frontier as a cultural paradigm. The Caspian Region: Poli-tics, Economics, Culture, (1), 288-298. (In Russian)

Yakushenkova, O.S. ? Yakushenkov, S.N. (2015). Transformation of the image of an alien in conditions of the postfrontier cultural paradigm. Polythematic online scientific journal of Kuban State Agrarian University, (114), 326-337. (In Rus-sian)

Zamyatin, D.N. (2000). Country Image: Structure and Dynamics. Social Sciences and Modernity, (1), 107-112. (In Russian)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.