The Image of Ivan the Terrible in post-Soviet Tatarstan: Elitist Version and Mass Representations
pdf (Русский)

Abstract views: 316
PDF Downloads: 114


national history
mass representations
historical politics
Ivan the Terrible

How to Cite

1. Карбаинов Н. The Image of Ivan the Terrible in post-Soviet Tatarstan: Elitist Version and Mass Representations // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2019. № 4.2. C. 363-389.


The negative image of Ivan the Terrible is part of the national history created by the political and intellectual elites of post-Soviet Tatarstan. The historical fault o Ivan the Terrible from point of view of the elites is that he captured Kazan in 1552, which led to the loss of Tatar statehood, the decline of culture and economy, the persecution of Islam and violent Christianization. The results of our sociological research show that despite all efforts of the Tatar elite, a significant part of the ordinary inhabitants of Tatarstan, including the Tatars, positively evaluate the activities of Ivan the Terrible, not only in history of Russia, but also in the history of Tatarstan. Tatar elites have achieved very modest successes in promoting their version of national history. According to the results of our research, we can only talk about «partial Tatarization» or the formation of «national archipelagos».
pdf (Русский)


Alvarez Veinguer, A. & Davis, Н. (2007). Building a Tatar elite. Language and national schooling in Kazan. Ethnicities, 7(2), 186–207.

Alvarez Veinguer, A. (2007). (Re)Presenting Identities: National Archipelagos in Kazan. Nationalities Papers, 35 (3), 457–476.

Davis, H., Hammond, P. & Nizamova. L. (2000). Media, Language Policy and Cultural Change in Tatarstan: Historic vs. Pragmatic Claims to Nationhood. Nations and Nationalism,6(2), 203–226.

Derrick, M. (2013). The Tension of Memory: Reclaiming the Kazan Kremlin. Acta Slavica Iaponica,(33), 1‒25.

Faller, Н.M. (2011). Nation, Language, Islam: Tatarstan’s Sovereignty Movement. Budapest; N.Y.: Central European University Press.

Friedli, A. (2012). Tatarization of the City: Ethnocultural Youth Identity Management in Kazan, Tatarstan. Urbanities, 2(1), 4–17.

Graney, K.E. (2009). Of Khans and Kremlins: Tatarstan and the Future of Ethno-Federalism in Russia. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Kinossian, N. (2012). Post-Socialist Transition and Remaking the City: Political Construction of Heritage in Tatarstan. Europe-Asia Studies, 64(5), 879–901.

Rorlich Azode-Ayse (1999). History, Collective Memory and Identity: the Tatars of Sovereign Tatarstan. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 32(4), 379–396.

Zverev, A. (2002). ‘The Patience of a Nation is Measured in Centuries’. National Revival in Tatarstan and Historiography. In B. Coppieters and M. Huysseune (eds.). Secession, History and the Social Sciences. Brussels: VUB Brussels University Press. (pp. 69–87).

Aymermacher, K. & Bordyugov, G.M. (ed.) (1999). National stories in the Soviet and post-Soviet states. Friedrich Naumann Foundation; AIRO-XX. (in Russian)

Assman, J. (2004). Cultural memory. Writing, memory of the past and political identity in the high cultures of antiquity. M .: Languages of Slavic culture. (in Russian)

Bomsdorf, F. & Bordyugov, G.M. (eds.) (2009). National stories in the post-Soviet space - II. Friedrich Naumann Foundation; AIRO-XX. (in Russian)

Bondarenko, E.A. (2001). Report on the results of a survey of ethno-national identity of the population and the sphere of cultural and media consumption in Tatarstan. In S.A. Erofeev, L.R. Nizamova (eds.). Post-Soviet Cultural Transformation: Media and Ethnicity in Tatarstan. Kazan: KSU Publishing House. (p. 234–264). (in Russian)

Gallyamova, A.G., Gibatdinov, M.M. & Kabirova, A.Sh. (2012). History of the Tatar people (XX - XXI): study guide for 11th grade wednesday general education. school with Russian lang training (profile level). Kazan: Tatars. Prince publishing house. (in Russian)

Garif, N. (2007). The liberation war of the Tatar people. Kazan: Tatar book publishing house. (in Russian)

Gibatdinov, M.M. (2003). Teaching the history of the Tatar people and Tatarstan in a comprehensive school: history and modernity. Kazan: Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the RT. (in Russian)

Gilyazov, I. (2000). From the experience of teaching national history: the history of the Tatar people at Kazan University - yesterday and today. Ab Imperio, (3-4), 359–356. (in Russian)

Gilyazov, I.A., Piskarev, V.I. & Khuzin, F.Sh. (2008). The history of Tatarstan and the Tatar people from ancient times to the end of the XIX century. Textbook for grade 10 of a secondary school. Kazan: Hater. (in Russian)

Iskhakov, D.M., Izmailov, I. JI., Gilyazov, I.A. & Gibatdinov, M.M. (2009). The history of the Tatar people (from ancient times to the end of the XVII century.): Textbook. allowance for 10 cl. general education. school (profile level). Kazan: Magarif. (in Russian)

Iskhakov, S. (1999). The history of the Volga and Ural peoples: problems and prospects of "nationalization". In K. Aymermacher, G. Bordyugov (eds.) National stories in the Soviet and post-Soviet states. M.: Friedrich Naumann Foundation; AIRO-XX. (pp. 273–295). (in Russian)

Karbainov, N.I. (2018a). Images of the history of “Turkic civilization” in post-Soviet Tatarstan: elite versions and mass representations. Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 21 (2), 45–74. (in Russian)

Karbainov, N.I. (2018b). The ideology of 1552 in post-Soviet Tatarstan: a version of the elites and mass representations. Power and Elites, (5), 211-237. (in Russian)

Karbainov, N.I. (2018c). Images of revolutionary events of the 1917-1920s. in post-Soviet Tatarstan: versions of elites and mass representations. Petersburg Sociology Today, (10), 77-98. (in Russian)

Miller, A. & Lipman, M. (2012). Historical politics in the XXI century: Sat. articles. M .: New literary review. (in Russian)

Mukhametdinov, R.F. (2006). Ideological and political trends in post-Soviet Tatarstan (1991-2006) (comparison with the experience of Turkey). Kazan: Tamga. (in Russian)

Mukharyamova, L.M. & Andreeva, A.R. (2013). Institutionalization of the national school in post-Soviet Russia. In R.N. Musina, G.F. Gabdrakhmanova, G.I. Makarova, L.V. Sagitova (Ed.) Ethnosociology in Tatarstan: field research experience. Sat articles for the anniversary of L.M. Drobizhieva. Kazan: Institute of History named after S. Marjani, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, 2013. (pp. 87–115). (in Russian)

Nizamova, L.R. (2001). Media product and “national” ideology: case studies of the World Tatars Congress. In S.A. Erofeev, L.R. Nizamova (Ed.) Post-Soviet Cultural Transformation: Media and Ethnicity in Tatarstan. Kazan: KSU Publishing House. (p. 166–233). (in Russian)

Ovchinnikov, A.V. (2010). A new approach to the study of the phenomenon of modern "national historiography" (for example, "the history of the Tatar people"). Bulletin of the Udmurt University, (1), 79–85. (in Russian)

Poryvaeva, L. (2018). Historical trauma? As in Kazan they relate to Ivan the Terrible. Reedus. 01/29/2018. Retrieved from (in Russian)

Radik, (2013). The villain Ivan was a killer of many nations. RIA News. 07/19/2013. Retrieved from (in Russian)

Sagitova, L.V. (1998). Ethnicity in modern Tatarstan. Kazan: Tatpolygraph. (in Russian)

Suleymanov, R. (2014). In the "Shaimiev era" in Tatarstan, a generation hostile to Russia grew up: opinion. Regnum News Agency. 08/20/2014. Retrieved from (in Russian)

Usmanova, D. (2003). Creating the national history of the Tatars: historiographic and intellectual debates at the turn of the century. Ab Imperio, (3), 337-360. (in Russian)

Hakim, R.S. (2007). The Thorny Path to Freedom (Works of 1989–2006). Kazan: Tatar books. publishing house. (in Russian)

Hamidullin, B. (2016). The fall of Kazan ... a day of sorrow ... a day of remembrance. Site "Real time". 10/15/2016. Retrieved from (in Russian)

Schnirelman V. (2002). Identity and images of ancestors: Tatars before a choice. Bulletin of Eurasia, (4), 128–147. (in Russian)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.