Of Tulips and Daffodils: Kashmir Jannat Nazir as a Political Landscape in the Mughal Empire
pdf (Русский)

Abstract views: 330
Galleys Downloads: 141


Kashmir, Mughal court, Imperial Gardens, jannat nazir, political discourse of places

How to Cite

1. Maurya A. Of Tulips and Daffodils: Kashmir Jannat Nazir as a Political Landscape in the Mughal Empire // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2019. № 2. C. 62-91.


This article examines the emergence and evolution of the concept of Kashmir jannat nazir as a literary and political imaginary in the Mughal court. The author argues that this imaginary of Kashmir in the Mughal court drew upon older textual traditions like the literature and histories from Kashmir, corpora of Arab and Persian geographies compiled from the ninth century onwards, travel accounts, wonder tales and the chronicles of the Ghaznavid and Timurid courts. It emerged as literary imaginary over the sixteenth century. Through the seventeenth century it had entered into the imperial chronicles. By the middle of the seventeenth century, this imagination of Kashmir became a part of the political discourse in the Mughal court, part of their language of sovereignty and integral to the Mughal self-image. This article locates the imaginary of Kashmir Jannat Nazir within the politics of aesthetics as well as the politics of governance in the Mughal Empire.

A special attention the author pays to the mechanism of realization of this politics with the help of Garden architecture. The Gardens were a part of the spatial practice of the Mughal Empire, by which imperial authority was territorialised in the distant province of Kashmir.

pdf (Русский)


Ahmad, S. M. (1989). Arabic Classical Accounts of India and China. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies.

Ahmad, S. M., & Bano, R. (1984). Historical Geography of Kashmir. New Delhi.

Ahmed, M. (2008). The Many Histories of Muhammad bin Qasim: Narrating the Muslim Conquest of Sindh. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Chicago.

Ahmed, M. (2016). A Book of Conquest: The Chachnama and Muslim Origins in South Asia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Ahmed, M. (2019). Adam’s Mirror: the Frontier in the Imperial Imagination. Journal of Frontier Studies, (1), 83-101. https://doi.org/10.24411/2500-0225-2019-10006

Ahmed, M. (26 March 2011 г.). Adam’s Mirror: The Frontier in the Imperial Imagination. Economic & Political Weekly, XLVI(13), 60-65.

Ahmed, N. (1992). The Tabaqat i Akbari, A History of India from the Early Musalman Invasions to the Thirty Eighth Year of the Reign of Akbar, tr B N De (reprint). Delhi: Low Price Publication.

Alam, M., & Subrahmanyam, S. (2012). Writing the Mughal World. Ranikhet: Permanent Black.

Anooshahr, A. (2014). Mughals, Mongols and Mongrels: The Challenge of Aristocracy and the Rise of the Mughal State in the Tarikh i Rashidi. Journal of Early Modern History(18), 559–577.

Antrim, Z. (2012). Routes and Realms: The Power of Place in the Early Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ashraf, A. D. (Ред.). (n.d.). Diwan i Faizi. Lahore: Idarah Tahqiqat Pakistan, Danishgah i Punjab.

Bamzai, P. N. (1962). A History of Kashmir: Political, Social and Cultural, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Delhi.

Bates, A. (2005). Good, Common, Regular and Orderly: Early Modern Classifications of Monstrous Births. Social History of Medicine, 18(2), 141-158.

Bazaz, P. N. (1967). Kashmir in Crucible. Delhi.

Behl, A. (2006). The Magic Doe: Desire and Narrative in a Hindavi Sufi Romance, circa 1503. In R. M. Eaton, India’s Islamic Traditions (pp. 711–750). Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Bernier, F. (1992). Travels in the Mogul Empire, AD 1656–1668. (V. A. Smith, Ed., & A. Constable, Trans.) Delhi.

Bokhari, A. (2009). Gendered ‘Landscapes’: Jahanara Begum’s (1614–80) Patronage, Piety and Self-Representation in 17th Century Mughal India. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of Vienna.

Chadurah, H. M. (1991). History of Kashmir. (R. Bano, Ed.) Delhi.

Chander, S. (2009–2010). Hadis i Kashmir dar Nuskheh e Khatti Majma’ ul Afkarin Qand i Parsi. Nos 47–48.

Cox, W. (2013, April–June). Literary and Historical Consciousness in Kalhana: A Hypothesis. ndian Economic and Social History Review, 50(2), https://doi.org/10.1177/0019464613487097.

Elias, N., & Denison, E. R. (1973). Tarikh-i Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat: A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia. Patna.

Farooque, A. K. (1977). Roads and Communications in Mughal India. Delhi: Idarah i Adabiyat i Dehli.

Faruqui, M. (2012). The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fazl, A. A. (1872). Ain i Akbari, Vol II. (H. Blochmann, Ed.) Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Fazl, A. A. (2001). Ain i Akbari, Vol II. (H. S. Jarrett, Trans.) Delhi: Low Price Publication.

Fazl, A. A. (2005). Ain i Akbaried Sir Syed Ahmad. Aligarh: Sir Syed Academy.

Ghadessi, T. (2011). Inventoried Monsters. Journal of the History of Collections, 23(2), 267–281.

Hasan, K. P. (n.d.). Tarikh i Hasan, Srinagar: Research & Publication Division. J&K Archives Vol s I.

Hashim, M. (Ed.). (1940). Gurgani, Nuruddin Mohammad Jahangir Jahangirnama. Tehran: Intesharat Bunyad Farhang i Iran.

ibn Shahriyar al Ram Hurmuzi, & Buzurg, N. (2000). Ajaib i-Hind. (M. M. Zadeh, Trans.) Tehran.

Jahangir. (1999). Jahangirnama: Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. (W. M. Thackston, Trans.) New York.

Kabir, A. J. (2009). Territor y of Desire: Representing the Valley of Kashmir. Ranikhet: Permanent Black.

Kaw, M. A. (2001). The Agrarian System of Kashmir, 1586–1819 AD. Srinagar.

Kinra, R. (2015). Writing Self, Writing Empire: Chander Bhan Brahman and the Cultural World of the Indo-Persian State Secretary. Oakland: University of California Press.

Koch, E. (1997). “The Mughal Waterfront Garden” in Attilio Petruccioli, Gardens in the Times of Great Muslim Empires. Leiden, New York: E. J. Brill.

Koch, E. (2001). Mughal Art and Imperial Ideology. New Delhi: Oxford Universit y Press.

Koch, E. (2006). The Complete Taj Mahal and the Riverfront Gardens of Agra. London: Thames & Hudson.

Koch, E. (2007). Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity: Questions, Methods and Resources in a Multicultural Perspective, Michael Conan (ed), Volume 31, Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture. My Garden Is Hindustan: The Mughal Padshah’s Realization of a Political Metaphor.

Koch, E. (2009). Jahangir as Francis Bacon’s Ideal of the King as an Observer and Investigator of Nature. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 19(3), 293-338 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186309009699.

Kumboh, M. S. (1959). Shahjahannama, also known as Amal i Salih. Lahore.

Lahori, A. H. (1868). Badshahnama (Vol. II). (M. K. Ahmad, & M. A. Rahim, Eds.) Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Lefevre, C. (2007). Recovering a Missing Voice from Mughal India: The Imperial Discourse of Jahangir (r. 1605–1627) in his Memoirs. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 50(4), 452-489.

Majma’ ul Afkar. (n.d.). Khudabakhsh Oriental Library. ms, HL 840.

Mattoo, A. M. (1988). Kashmir under the Mughals 1586–1752. Srinagar.

Moin, A. A. (2012). The Millennial Sovereign. NYC: Columbia Universit y Press.

Mottahedeh, R. P. (1997). Ajaib in the Thousand and One Nights. In R. G. Hovannisian, & G. Sabagh (Eds.), The Thousand and One Nights in Arabic Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Parmu, R. K. (1969). History of Muslim Rule in Kashmir. Delhi.

Prasad, I. (1956). Life and Times of Humayun. Calcutta.

Rogers, A. (2003). The Tuzuk i Jahangiri or Memoirs of Jahangir. (H. Beveridge, Ed.) New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.

Ruggles, D. F. (2008). Islamic Gardens and Landscapes. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sachau, E. C. (Ed.). (2003). Al Beruni’s India. New Delhi: Indialog Publications.

Shahbadi, M. M. (1974). Raj Tarangini [Tarikh i Kashmir]. (S. Afaqi, Ed.) Rawalpindi.

Shirazi, U. (n.d.). Kulliyat UrfiShirazi, (ed), Jawahari, Kitabkhana e Shinasi.

Shulman, D. (2013). Preface: Kalhana’s Rajatarangini: What Is It? Indian Economic and Social History Review, 50(2).

Sufi, G. M. (1996). Kashir, Being a History of Kashmīr from the Earliest Times to Our Own. New Delhi.

Tikku, G. L. (1971). Persian Poetry in Kashmir 1339–1846: An Introduction. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Villiers-Stuart, C. M. (1913). The Gardens of the Great Mughals. London.

Zadeh, T. (2010). The Wiles of Creation: Philosophy, Fiction and the ‘Aja’ib Tradition. Middle Eastern Literatures, 13(1), 527-556 https://doi.org/10.1080/14752620903566095.

Zaki, M. (Ed.). (2009). Arab Accounts of India (During the Fourteenth Century). Delhi.

Zutshi, C. (2014). Kashmir’s Contested Pasts: Narratives, Sacred Geographies and the Historical Imagination. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.