The Java Diaspora in Suriname: Socio-Economic and Confessional Aspects of Everyday Life
pdf (Русский)


Suriname; a multiracial society; ethnic groups; Javanese; labor contracts; history; islam; plantations; agrarian society; modernity

How to Cite

1. Болтаевский А. The Java Diaspora in Suriname: Socio-Economic and Confessional Aspects of Everyday Life // Journal of Frontier Studies. 2019. № 3. C. 153-174.


The relevance of the topic is determined by the widespread development of migration processes in the modern conditions of globalization and multiculturalism. One of the relatively unexplored and almost unknown in our country manifestations of these processes is the Javanese community in Suriname, which, on the one hand, is increasingly susceptible to creolization, on the other, is still distinguished by its originality, and supported at the religious level. The paper uses a systematic approach, which is based on the consideration of an object as an integral complex of interrelated elements, as well as the historical and comparative method. The scientific novelty of the article is determined both by the weak study of the topic in domestic science and by the complex review based on various sources and research. The author draws attention to the complexity of the adaptation processes of Javanese people in Suriname, which at a certain stage caused the self-isolation of this community. The situation changed after the Second World War, when, under conditions of increasing political activity of all ethnic groups of the country, the activity of Javanese leaders intensified. In terms of urbanization, young generations of Javanese are increasingly seeking to enter the Creole environment, which increases the possibilities of vertical mobility. At the same time, religious differentiation occurs when a part of Javanese people undergo secularization and Christianization, while the other is included in the process of re-Islamization
pdf (Русский)


Adhin, J.H. (1954). De culturele involed van de Aziatische bevolkingsgroep op Suriname. Vox Guyanae. 1 (4-5), p. 29-34.

Alexander, P. (1984). Women, labour and fertility: population growth in nineteenth century Java’. Mankind, 14, p. 361-371.

Allen, P. (2011). Javanese cultural traditions in Suriname. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs, 45 (1-2), p. 199-223.

Allen, P. (2013). Mulih nDjowo: Repatriation and Nostalgia for Home Among the Javanese of Suriname. Indonesian Studies Working Papers. 16.

Alphen, van G. (1962). Suriname in een onbekend journal van 1693. New West Indian Guide. 42 (1). Blz. 303-313.

Bonne, C. (1919). De maatschappelijke beteekenis der Surinaamsche ziekten. Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 1 ( 1), p. 291-310.

Burger, J. W. (1928). Vergelijkend overzicht van de immigratie en blijvende vestiging van Javanen en Britsch-Indiërs in Suriname. De Economist. 77 (1), p. 422-445.

Commenee, van J. (2009). «Het geslacht van een kind wordt niet bepaalt door het kappen van een kokos». De religieuze praktijk van de reformistische en traditionalistische Javaanse moslims als uitdrukking van verschil. Utrecht: Universiteit Utrecht.

Dewey, A.G. (1964). The Noumea Javanese. An Urban Community in the South Pacific. South Pacific Bulletin, 4, p. 18-23.

Dino Patti Djalal Dukung Kewarganegaraan Ganda Diaspora Indonesia (2006). Retrieved from:

Dridzo, A.D. (1977). Brotherhood of the ship. Soviet ethnography. 2, p. 108-116.

Emmer, P.C. (1986). The meek Hindu; the recruitment of Indian indentured labourers for service overseas, 1870–1916. Colonialism and Migration; Indentured Labour Before and After Slavery. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië (1917). ‘s-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff.

Furnivall, J.S. (1944). Netherlands India. A Study Of Plural Economy. Cambridge: At the University Press.

Hassankhan, M. (2016). Indentured Muslims in the Diaspora. Identity and Belonging of Minority Groups in Plural Societies. London – New York: Routledge.

Hendrix, N. & Waning, M.A. van. (2010). De Javaanse moslims in Suriname. Een kwalitatief onderzoek anno 2009. Master thesis. Universiteit Utrecht, 2010.

Hoefte, R. (1987). Control and resistance: indentured labor in Suriname. New West Indian Guide. 61 ( 1-2), p. 1-21.

Hoefte, R. (1988). In Place of Slavery. A Social History of British Indian and Javanese Laborers in Suriname. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Hoefte, R. (2016). Orang-kontrak: De verbeelding van Javaanse contractarbeiders in Suriname en Deli . ActaNeerlandica, 12, 145-171.

Hugo, G. (1993). Indonesian Labour Migration to Malaysia: Trends and Policy Implications. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 21 (1), 36–70.

Hyles, D.R. (2014). Guiana and the Shadows of Empire Colonial and Cultural Negotiations at the Edge of the World. Plymouth (UK): Lexington Books.

Ismael, J. (1949). De immigratie van Indonesiërs in Suriname. Leiden: Luctor et Emergo.

Javaanse contractarbeiders in Suriname 1890-1930. Retrieved from:

Kroef van der, J. (1951). The Indonesian Minority in Surinam. American Sociological Review, 16 (5), 672–679.

Kuznetsov, A.I. (1991). Indonesians abroad. M.: N.N. Miklouho-Maklay Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology. (in Russian).

Lier, van R. A. J. (1971). Frontier Society. A Social Analysis of the History of Surinam. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoof.

Lockard, C.A. (1971). The Javanese as Emigrant: Observations on the Development of Javanese Settlements overseas. Indonesia, 11, p. 41-62.

Maftukhin, М. (2016). Islam Jawa in diaspora and questions on locality. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 10 ( 2), p. 375-394.

Maison, D. (2011). Java sur les rivages de l’Atlantique, ou les tribulations de la communauté javanaise du Suriname. Le Banian, 11, p. 105-120.

Malefijt Waal, de A.-M. (1963). The Javanese of Suriname. Segment of a Plural Society. Assen: Van Gorcum.

Malefijt Waal, de A.-М. (1964). Animism and Islam among the Javanese in Surinam. Anthropological Quarterly. 37 (1), p. 149-155.

Mangoenkarso, P.P. (2002). De eerste 94 Javanen op plantage Mariënburg in Suriname. Rijswijk [s.n.].

McNeill, J. (1914). Report on the condition of Indian immigrants in the four British colonies: Trinidad, British Guiana or Demerara, Jamaica and Fiji, and in the Dutch Colony of Surinam or Dutch Guiana. Part II: Surinam, Jamaica, Fiji and general remarks. Gouvernment Central Press.

Meel, P. (2009). Anton de Kom and the Formative Phase of Surinamese Decolonization. New West Indian Guide. 83 (3-4), p. 249-280.

Meel, P. (2011). Continuity Through Diversity: The Surinamese Javanese Diaspora and the Homeland Anchorage. Wadabagei. A Journal of the Caribbean and its Diasporas. 13 (1), p. 92-134.

Meel, P. (2017). Jakarta and Paramaribo Calling. Return Migration Challenges for the Surinamese Javanese Diaspora? New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 91 (3-4). Р. 223-259.

Netscher Gon, der van A.D. (1862). De opheffing van de slavernij en de toekomst van Nederlandsch West-Indie. s-Gravenhage: Gebroeders Belinfante.

Post N. (2017). The free non-white ladies of Suriname: Moving up from slavery, 1770 – 1863. MA Thesis. Utrecht University. Retrieved from:

Soeropawiro, S.L. (2018). The Development of Islam amongst the Javanese in Suriname. Legacy of Slavery and Indentured Labour. Linking the Past with the Future. Conference on Slavery, Indentured Labour, Migration, Diaspora and Identity Formation. June 18th – 23th, 2018. Paramaribo, Suriname.

State Archive of the Russian Federation (Op. 1. D. 20). F. 7298.

St-Hilaire, A. (2001). Ethnicity, assimilation and nation in plural Suriname. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 24 (6), p. 998-1019.

Tirtosudarmo R. (2015). The Javanese in lampung, Stanger or Locals? With the Reference of Chinese Experience. Jurnal Kajian Wilayah. 6 (2), p. 161-172.

Villerius, S. (2017). Developments in Surinamese Javanese. Language contact and change in a multilingual context. Proefschrift. Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Wengen, van G.D. (1966). De rijstbouw bij de javanen in Suriname een veranderend cultuurpatroon. Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 45 (1), blz. 66-76.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.